How to Repair Food (3rd Edition)

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The need for constant supervision is of particular concern in dealing with very young children and children with significant motor dysfunction or developmental delays. Supervising adults should be CPR-trained and should have a telephone accessible to the pool and water area at all times should emergency services be required.

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Discipline is not punishment. The discipline standard therefore reflects an approach that focuses on preventing behavior problems by supporting children in learning appropriate social skills and emotional responses. When a child needs assistance to resolve a conflict, manage a transition, engage in a challenging situation, or express feelings, needs, and wants, the adult should help the child learn strategies for dealing with the situation.

Discipline should be an ongoing process to help children learn to manage their own behavior in a socially acceptable manner, and should not just occur in response to a problem behavior. To develop self-control, children should receive adult support that is individual to the child and adapts as the child develops internal controls. This process should include:. Further, the policies should address proactive as well as reactive strategies. Time-out also known as temporary separation is one strategy to help children change their behavior and should be used in the context of a positive behavioral support approach which works to understand undesired behaviors and teach new skills to replace the behavior.

Listed below are guidelines when using time-out 8 :.

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Time-out should not turn into a power struggle with the child. Note that children should not be restrained to keep them in time-out. Gross, D. Garvey, W. Julion, L. Fogg, S. Tucker, H. Efficacy of the Chicago Parent Program with low-income multi-ethnic parents of young children. Preventions Science Breitenstein, S. Gross, I. Ordaz, W. Julion, C. Garvey, A.

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Promoting mental health in early childhood programs serving families from low income neighborhoods. J Am Psychiatric Nurses Assoc Preventive parent training with low-income ethnic minority parents of preschoolers. In Handbook of parent training: Helping parents prevent and solve problem behaviors. Briesmeister, C. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Gartrell, D. He did it on purpose! Young Children The power of guidance: Teaching social-emotional skills in early childhood classrooms.

Shiller, V. Using rewards in the early childhood classroom: A reexamination of the issues. Young Children , Reineke, J. Sonsteng, D. Nurturing mastery motivation: No need for rewards.


Ryan, R. When rewards compete with nature: The undermining of intrinsic motivation and self-regulation. In Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance, ed. Sanstone, J. Harackiewicz, Expulsion refers to terminating the enrollment of a child or family in the regular group setting because of a challenging behavior or a health condition.

Suspension and other limitations in services include all other reductions in the amount of time a child may be in attendance of the regular group setting, either by requiring the child to cease attendance for a particular period of time or reducing the number of days or amount of time that a child may attend. Requiring a child to attend the program in a special place away from the other children in the regular group setting is included in this definition. These policies should also explicitly state how the program plans to use any available internal mental health and other support staff during behavioral crises to eliminate to the degree possible any need for external supports e.

Mental health consultation may be obtained from a variety of sources, as described in Standard 1. When children exhibit or engage in challenging behaviors that cannot be resolved easily, as above, staff should:. The only possible reasons for considering expelling, suspending or otherwise limiting services to a child on the basis of challenging behaviors are:. This transition could include a different private or public-funded child care or early education program in the community that is better equipped to address the behavioral concerns e.

To the degree that safety can be maintained, the child should be transitioned directly to the receiving program. If abuse or neglect is suspected, then appropriate child protection services should be informed. Finally, no child should ever be expelled or suspended from care without first conducting an assessment of the safety of alternative arrangements e. Will the child be adequately and safely supervised at all times? Child care programs must not tolerate, or in any manner condone, an act of abuse or neglect of a child.

The behaviors mentioned in the standard threaten the safety and security of children. This would include behaviors that occur among or between staff. Corporal punishment may be physical abuse or may easily become abusive. Corporal punishment is clearly prohibited in family child care homes and centers in most states 3. The American Academy of Pediatrics is opposed to the use of corporal punishment 7. Appropriate alternatives to corporal punishment vary as children grow and develop.

Preschoolers can beginning to develop an understanding of rules; therefore brief verbal expressions help prepare reasoning skills in infants and toddlers. School-aged children begin to develop a sense of personal responsibility and self-control and can learn using healthy and safe incentives 8. In the wake of well-publicized allegations of child abuse in out-of-home settings and increased concerns about liability, some programs have instituted no-touch policies, either explicitly or implicitly. Touch is especially important for infants and toddlers.

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Warm, responsive, safe, and appropriate touches convey regard and concern for children of any age. What is the link between corporal punishment and child physical abuse? J Fam Violence. Child abuse and neglect: definitions. Updated April 5, Education and advocacy efforts to reduce school corporal punishment.

In: Corporal Punishment in U. Corporal punishment: evaluation of an intervention by PNPs. J Pediatr Health Care. Spanking and adult mental health impairment: The case for the designation of spanking as an adverse childhood experience. Child Abuse Negl.

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Carr A. New York, NY: Routledge; Ferguson CJ. Spanking, corporal punishment and negative long-term outcomes: a meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies. Clin Psychol Rev. The use of safe physical restraint should occur rarely and only for brief periods to protect the child and others.

For all children, health supervision includes routine screening tests, immunizations, and chronic or acute illness monitoring. For children twenty-four months of age and older, sex-specific height and weight graphs should be plotted by the primary care provider in addition to body mass index BMI , according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC.

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The plotting of height and weight measurements and plotting and classification of BMI by the primary care provider or school health personnel, on a reference growth chart, will show how children are growing over time and how they compare with other children of the same chronological age and sex 1,3,4.

Growth charts are based on data from national probability samples, representative of children in the general population. Their use by the primary care provider may facilitate early recognition of growth concerns, leading to further evaluation, diagnosis, and the development of a plan of care.

Children should have ample opportunity to do moderate to vigorous activities, such as running, climbing, dancing, skipping, and jumping, to the extent of their abilities. All children, birth to 6 years of age, should participate daily in:. Two to 3 occasions of active play outdoors, weather permitting see Standard 3.

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Continuous opportunities to develop and practice age-appropriate gross motor and movement skills. The total time allotted for outdoor play and moderate to vigorous indoor or outdoor physical activity can be adjusted for the age group and weather conditions. Infants birth—12 months of age should be taken outside 2 to 3 times per day, as tolerated. Toddlers 12 — 35 months and preschoolers 3—6 years should be allowed 60 to 90 total minutes of outdoor play 1. These outdoor times can be curtailed somewhat during adverse weather conditions in which children may still play safely outdoors for shorter periods, but the time of indoor activity should increase so the total amount of exercise remains the same.

Toddlers should be allowed 60 to 90 minutes per 8-hour day for moderate to vigorous physical activity, including running. Preschoolers should be allowed 90 to minutes per 8-hour day for moderate to vigorous physical activity, including running 1,2. Infants should have supervised tummy time every day when they are awake. Place toys in a circle around the infant. Lie on your back and place the infant on your chest.

source Opportunities to actively enjoy physical activity should be incorporated into part-time programs by prorating these recommendations accordingly eg, 20 minutes of outdoor play for every 3 hours in the facility.