The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor

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BR, Dr. I don't think this is true. Striving for social recognition from peers, as in your example does happen in professions, but to be frank, that happens in all fields woodworkers can compare their work just like surgeons can , and it certainly isn't a must in professions - there are plenty of professionals who couldn't care less about how their peers viewed them as long as they're considered competent.

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Many MD's or accountants just want to do the job because the work appeals to them, or whatever other motives they may have intrinsic or extrinsic. Peer recognition as in status perhaps is a larger driving force for those who go into academia where to contribute you must be recognized or for those who go after the big money - but neither constitute the majority in their profession if you ask me. Post a Comment. Sunday, June 8, The professions as an object of study. Several gifted sociologists over the past thirty years have made innovative contributions to the study of the "sociology of professions.

Abbott has also given attention to one profession in particular, university faculty, in two other interesting books, Chaos of Disciplines and Department and Discipline: Chicago Sociology at One Hundred. Earlier contributions to the study of professions include books by Mayer Zald, including Occupations and organizations in American society: The organization-dominated man?

As the titles indicate, Zald's interests cross over between professions and organizations; but the two are plainly linked. Examples of professions that are considered by Abbott and Zald include psychiatrists, social workers, accountants, physicians, professors, and pharmacists.

And I suppose we might extend the list quite a bit, to include journalists, lawyers, real estate agents, university presidents, property assessors, architects, clergy, and engineers.

But what about more borderline examples: skilled auto mechanics, sculptors, acupuncturists, necromancers, landscapers, and tarot card readers? And how about corporate executives, bankers, skilled pickpockets, and pirates? We know what a professional opera singer is: it is a person who can earn her living in this career. But is an opera singer a "professional" in the relevant sense? What is a "professional", anyway? What are the relationships among profession, occupation, skill, expertise, income, work, prestige, and credential?

And how is this a sociological question? As the examples suggest, there are several dimensions of qualification that we might intuitively consider to define the concept of "professional".

System Professions Essay Division Expert by Andrew Abbott, Softcover

These problems can be objective, in that they originate naturally or through technological imperatives. Problems can also be subjective, whereby they are imposed by society or a culture either from the present or past. Abbott argues that the real difference between the objective and subjective qualities of problems is a difference in amenability to cultural work Abbott Abbott outlines that there are several types of objective foundations for professional tasks.

Some being technological, some organizational, other sources of objective qualities lay in natural objects and facts, while others came from slow-changing cultural structures. Abbott also argues that a profession is always vulnerable to changes in the objective character of its central tasks Abbott Besides the objective qualities, professional tasks also have subjective qualities, which make them susceptible to change. Unlike objective tasks, change does not come from the vagaries of external forces, but from the activities of other professions impinge[ing] on the subjective qualities Abbott According to Abbott, three acts helped to embody the cultural logic of professional practice.

The three subjective modalities being diagnosis, inference, and treatment. Diagnosis is the process wherein information is taken into the professional knowledge system, and treatment is wherein instruction is brought back out from it Abbott During the process of diagnosis, relevant information about the client is assembled into a picture of the clients needs. This picture is then categorized into a proper diagnostic category. This process consists of two sub-processes known as colligation and classification. Colligation is the first step in which the professional knowledge system begins to structure the observed problems Abbott Colligation is the forming of a picture of the client, and consists primarily of rules declaring what kinds of evidence are relevant and irrelevant, valid and invalid, as well as rules specifying the admissible level of ambiguity Abbott Classification is the referral of the colligated picture to the dictionary of professional legitimate problems Abbott Colligation and classification help to define which type of problems fall under which body of profession, and specifically what kind of problem it is in that particular profession.

Abbott mentions that sometimes problems of classification arise. For some problems are constantly shifting classifications, and fall under more than one classification, due to their defining traits. This may lead to intervention or competition by other professions who want to assimilate the unclear problem into their own professional repertoire Abbott The procedure of treatment is organized around a classification system and a brokering process, whereby results are given to the client and prescription is offered Abbott One major problem associated with treatment is the clients willingness to accept treatment.

A profession that adamantly forces clients to take treatment risks losing clients to their competition who may be more flexible to their clients wishes Abbott Inference is the process that takes place when the connection between diagnosis and treatment is obscure Abbott Inference can work in one of two ways, either by exclusion or construction.

With regards to the ideals of inference, is the fact that professions that have several chances to infer solutions to a problem will consequently have more failures, than a profession that gets only one chance. In addition, professions with multiple chances are generally more vulnerable to intervention and competition, or what is known as ceteris paribus, for treatment failure is the main attacking point for invading professions Abbott Another factor that leaves professions prone to external attack is the existence of a problem where no treatment can be inferred.

To counteract this potential downfall, Abbott suggested that professions often direct these unsolvable problems to elite consultants or are academicized as crucial anomalies Abbott These procedures help to make the difficult problem connected with a vague public label, which serves as a stopgap against dangerous questioning Abbott This in turn removes direct and stigmatizing responsibility of treatment failure away from a profession, which protects a professions jurisdiction Abbott Diagnosis, treatment, inference, and academic work provide the cultural machinery of jurisdiction Abbott However, Abbott argues that this is not enough for an organized structure to claim jurisdiction.

In order to claim jurisdiction, a profession must ask society to recognize its cognitive structure through exclusive rights Abbott Jurisdictional claim by a profession can be achieved in several possible arenas, within the legal system, the realm of public opinion, and within the arena of the workplace. Claiming jurisdiction is only one means of overcoming jurisdictional disputes by professions, Abbott mentions that there are five other known types of settlement options. A professions social organization is comprised of three distinct internal structures, they being groups, controls, and worksites.

These modules of professional organization work in unison to create a more bonded and organized professional structure.

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Together they influence professions in several ways. First, the more organized a profession is, the more effective it is at claiming jurisdiction. Second, organization of a profession into a single, identifiable national association is clearly a prerequisite of public or legal claims Abbott Third, in some conditions oddly, some relatively less organized professions due to their internal structures have a certain advantage in workplace competition.

For these professional organizations lack rigid focus, and thus have freedom to move back and forth from different tasks, whereas more organized professions lack this flexibility to venture into other areas of work to increase diversity, to become more competitive. Finally, professions that have highly organized internal structures are more resilient to attacks by less organized professions.

These facts illustrate that the social structure of professions is neither fixed nor uniformly beneficial; the nature of it is constantly subdividing under the various pressures of market demands, specialization, and interprofessional competition Abbott In addition, these facts demonstrate that different competitive conditions favour a more or less organized profession.

Taken together these factors imply that the professions as a group will develop in the structured dynamic pattern that Abbott calls the system of professions.

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Abbott upholds in his book the ideal that professions constitute an interdependent system, and that jurisdiction is exclusive Abbott That being true, then a move by one inevitably affects the others. Change occurs within professions according to Abbott through two sources. One source is from external factors, these initiate the opening or closing [of] areas for jurisdiction and by existing or new professions seeking new ground Abbott New tasks areas of jurisdiction are opened; some professions prosper by the acquisition of these new jurisdictions by procedures such as enclosure at the expense of destroying old jurisdictions, that lead to the weakening of the jurisdiction of other professions Abbott A second source of change comes from internal factors, these causes unlike external factors do not create or abolish jurisdiction.

Change is initiated internally within the dynamic structures of professions through the development of new knowledge, and expansion of jurisdictional consolidation by processes such as professionalization or reduction Abbott The power of professions to expand their cognitive domain, and thus their jurisdiction, Abbott maintains is dependent on their use of abstract knowledge to annex new areas of work, and to define then as their own Abbott Abbott also adds that knowledge must not be too abstract or concrete to be jurisdictionally advantageous for a profession.

Two mechanisms help professions to maintain an optimal level of abstraction, these being the processes of amalgamation and division. Within professions there exists internal differentiation between the organized groups of individuals that comprise the profession.

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His book, The System of Professions , is considered an important contribution to sociology. Reviews of the book mention several "powerful ideas" that enhance previous work on professionals:. The arguments are illustrated by three historical case studies. Another aspect of Abbott's work deals with methods and their relation to social scientific knowledge. Abbott imported into social science computational techniques for analyzing sequence data—in particular optimal matching analysis, a technique that detects similarities between numerous sequences, hence enabling a quantitative approach to careers and other social sequence data.

His book Time Matters , published in , is a collection of essays on the philosophy of methods that summarizes and furthers Abbott's main arguments on time and processes. The development of this set of methods has heavily influenced the development of the field of social sequence analysis.

System of Professions - Andrew Abbott - Häftad () | Bokus

Abbott analyzed academic disciplines in two books, Department and Discipline and Chaos of Discipline The first book analyzes the history of sociology at Chicago and in particular the history of the American Journal of Sociology. The second provides a systematic approach to the intellectual development of disciplines. With the reconsideration of 'how knowledge changes and advances' he challenges the idea of social sciences being in 'a perpetual state of progress' stating them cycling around 'an inevitable pattern of core principles'.

Abbott has written also about knowledge production in Methods of Discovery - a handbook for social science heuristics and Digital Paper — a handbook for research with data found in libraries or on the internet. He analyzes the various ways of knowing and its relation to materials. Throughout Abbott's work runs the idea of a processual approach to the social world.

This perspective, which is meant to offer an alternative paradigm to investigate society, is sketched out in a recent collection of essays [12]. Each issue of the American Journal of Sociology features an essay reviewing a sociology book from the past, written under the pen name of Barbara Celarent, supposedly writing from the year From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Barbara Celarent disambiguation. Retrieved February 27, University of Chicago Press.